My research

My research seeks to understand how people use communication technology to maintain their interpersonal relationships. Understanding family communication patterns and children’s psychosocial outcomes is a secondary (and sometimes related) research area. I list my peer-reviewed publications below, with links to abstracts.

I am also available as a statistical consultant. I recently served Pi Beta Phi Fraternity for Women by analyzing and reporting data on their membership-wide satisfaction survey (administered to approximately 2,000 collegians and alumnae).

Click here for my full CV.

Papers published in peer-reviewed journals:

Kaufmann, R. M., Buckner, M. M., & Ledbetter, A. M. (in press). Having fun on Facebook?: Mothers’ enjoyment as a moderator of well-being and Facebook use. Health Communication.

Ledbetter, A. M., & Redd, S. M. (in press). Celebrity credibility on social media: A conditional process analysis of online self-disclosure attitude as a moderator of posting frequency and parasocial interaction. Western Journal of Communication.

Taylor, S. H., & Ledbetter, A. M. (in press). Extending media multiplexity theory to the extended family: Communication satisfaction and tie strength as moderators of violations of media use expectations. New Media & Society.

Ledbetter, A. M., & Finn, A. N. (2016). Why do students use mobile technology for social purposes during class?: Modeling teacher credibility, learner empowerment, and online communication attitude as predictors. Communication Education, 65, 1-23.

Ledbetter, A. M., Taylor, S. H., & Mazer, J. P. (2016). Enjoyment fosters media use frequency and determines its relational outcomes: Toward a synthesis of uses and gratifications theory and media multiplexity theory. Computers in Human Behavior, 54, 149-157.

Ellis, N. K., & Ledbetter, A. M. (2015). Why might distance make the heart grow fonder?: A relational turbulence model investigation of the maintenance of long distance and geographically close romantic relationships. Communication Quarterly, 63, 568-585.

Forsythe, K. E., & Ledbetter, A. M. (2015). Relational uncertainty, self-other inclusion, and communication satisfaction as predictors of friendship relational maintenance, and how equity changes the story. Communication Studies, 66, 321-340.

Ledbetter, A. M. (2015). Political philosophy as a (partial) mediator of the association between family communication patterns and perception of candidate credibility in the 2012 U.S. presidential election. Journal of Family Communication, 15, 214-231.

Ledbetter, A. M., & Keating, A. T. (2015). Maintaining Facebook friendships: Everyday talk as a mediator of threats to closeness. Western Journal of Communication, 79, 197-217.

Finn, A. N., & Ledbetter, A. M. (2014). Teacher verbal aggressiveness and credibility mediate the relationship between teacher technology policies and perceived student learning. Communication Education, 63, 210-234.

Ledbetter, A. M. (2014). Online communication attitude similarity in romantic dyads: Predicting couples’ frequency of e-mail, instant messaging, and social networking site communication. Communication Quarterly, 62, 233-252.

Ledbetter, A. M. (2014). The past and future of technology in interpersonal communication theory and research. Communication Studies, 65, 456-459.

Ledbetter, A. M., & Beck, S. J. (2014). A theoretical comparison of relational maintenance and closeness as mediators of family communication patterns in parent-child relationships. Journal of Family Communication, 14, 230-252.

Ledbetter, A. M., & Mazer, J. P. (2014). Do online communication attitudes mitigate the association between Facebook use and relational interdependence? An extension of media multiplexity theory. New Media & Society, 16, 806-822.

Beck, S. J., & Ledbetter, A. M. (2013). The influence of parent conflict style on children. Personal Relationships, 20, 495-510.

Buckner, M., Ledbetter, A. M., & Bridge, M. (2013). Raised to dissent: Family-of-origin family communication patterns as predictors of organizational dissent. Journal of Family Communication, 13, 263-279.

Finn, A. N., & Ledbetter, A. M. (2013). Teacher power mediates the effects of technology policies on teacher credibility. Communication Education, 62, 26-47.

Ledbetter, A. M. (2013). Relational maintenance communication and self expansion theory: Low-inference measure development and dyadic test of inclusion of the other in the self as a predictor. Southern Communication Journal, 78, 289-310.

Ledbetter, A. M., & Finn, A. N. (2013). Teacher technology policies and online communication apprehension as predictors of learner empowerment. Communication Education, 62, 301-317.

Ledbetter, A. M., Stassen-Ferrara, H. M., & Dowd, M. M. (2013). Comparing equity and self expansion theory approaches to relational maintenance. Personal Relationships, 20, 38-51.

McCurry, A. L., Schrodt, P., & Ledbetter, A. M. (2012). Relational uncertainty and communication efficacy as predictors of religious conversations in romantic relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 29, 1085-1108.

Carr, K., Schrodt, P., & Ledbetter, A. M. (2012). Rumination, conflict intensity, and perceived resolvability as predictors of the motivation to sustain and likelihood of continuing serial arguments. Western Journal of Communication, 76, 480-502.

Ledbetter, A. M., & Kuznekoff, J. H. (2012). More than a game: Friendship relational maintenance and attitudes toward Xbox LIVE communication. Communication Research, 39, 269-290.

Ledbetter, A. M., & Vik, T. A. (2012). Parental invasive behaviors and emerging adults’ privacy defenses: Instrument development and validation. Journal of Family Communication, 12, 227-247.

Mazer, J. P., & Ledbetter, A. M. (2012). Online communication attitude as predictors of problematic Internet usage and well-being outcomes. Southern Communication Journal, 77, 403-419.

Schrodt, P., & Ledbetter, A. M. (2012). Parental confirmation as a mitigator of feeling caught and family satisfaction. Personal Relationships, 19, 146-161.

Ledbetter, A. M., Broeckelman-Post, M. A., & Krawsczyn, A. M. (2011). Modeling everyday talk: Differences across communication media and sex composition of friendship dyads. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 28, 223-241.

Ledbetter, A. M., Mazer, J. P., DeGroot, J. M., Mao, Y., Meyer, K. R., & Swafford, B. (2011). Attitudes toward online social connection and self disclosure as predictors of Facebook communication and relational closeness. Communication Research, 38, 27-53.

Quick, B. L., Scott, A. M., & Ledbetter, A. M. (2011). A close examination of trait reactance and issue involvement as moderators of psychological reactance theory. Journal of Health Communication, 16, 660-679.

Ledbetter, A. M. (2010). Content- and medium-specific decomposition of relational maintenance behaviors in friendships: Integrating equity and media multiplexity approaches. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 27, 938-955.

Ledbetter, A. M. (2010). Assessing the measurement invariance of relational maintenance behavior when face-to-face and online. Communication Research Reports, 27, 30-37.

Ledbetter, A. M. (2010). Family communication patterns and communication competence as predictors of online communication attitude: Evaluating a dual pathway model. Journal of Family Communication, 10, 99-115.

Ledbetter, A. M., Heiss, S., Sibal, K., Lev, E., Battle-Fisher, M., & Shubert, N. (2010). Parental invasive and children’s defensive behaviors at home and away at college: Mediated communication and privacy boundary management. Communication Studies, 61, 184-204.

Ledbetter, A. M., Stassen, H., Muhammad, A., & Kotey, E. N. (2010). Relational maintenance as including the other in the self. Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, 11, 21-28.

Ledbetter, A. M. (2009). Measuring online communication attitude: Instrument development and validation. Communication Monographs, 76, 463-486.

Ledbetter, A. M. (2009). Family communication patterns and relational maintenance behavior: Direct and mediated associations with friendship closeness. Human Communication Research, 35, 130-147.

Ledbetter, A. M. (2009). Patterns of media use and multiplexity: Associations with sex, geographic distance and friendship interdependence. New Media & Society, 11, 1187-1208.

Schrodt, P., Ledbetter, A. M., Jernberg, K. A., Larson, L., Brown, N., & Glonek, K. (2009). Family communication patterns as mediators of communication competence in the parent/child relationship. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 26, 853-874.

Bates, B. R., Mazer, J. P., Ledbetter, A. M., & Norander, S. (2009). The DO difference: An analysis of causal relationships affecting the degree-change debate. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 109, 359-369. (full text at JAOA)

Baym, N. K., & Ledbetter, A. M. (2009). Tunes that bind?: Predicting friendship strength in a music-based social network. Information, Communication & Society, 12, 408-427. (full text at

Ledbetter, A. M. (2008). Chronemic cues and sex differences in relational e-mail: Perceiving immediacy and supportive message quality. Social Science Computer Review, 26, 466-482.

Ledbetter, A. M. (2008). Media use and relational closeness in long-term friendships: Interpreting patterns of multimodality. New Media & Society, 10, 547-564.

Ledbetter, A. M., & Larson, K. A. (2008). Nonverbal cues in e-mail supportive communication: Associations with sender sex, recipient sex, and support satisfaction. Information, Communication & Society, 11, 1089-1110.

Ledbetter, A. M., & Schrodt, P. (2008). Family communication patterns and cognitive processing: Conversation and conformity orientations as predictors of informational reception apprehension. Communication Studies, 59, 388-401.

Baym, N. K., Kunkel, A., Zhang, Y. B., Ledbetter, A. M., & Lin, M.-C. (2007). Relational quality and media use in interpersonal relationships. New Media & Society, 9, 735-752. (full text at KU’s website)

Ledbetter, A. M., Griffin, E., & Sparks, G. G. (2007). Forecasting “friends forever”: A longitudinal investigation of sustained closeness between college best friends. Personal Relationships, 14, 343-350.

Schrodt, P., & Ledbetter, A. M. (2007). Communication processes that mediate family communication patterns and mental well-being: A mean and covariance structures analysis of young adults from divorced and non-divorced families. Human Communication Research, 33, 330-356.

Schrodt, P., Ledbetter, A. M., & Ohrt, J. K. (2007). Parental confirmation and affection as mediators of family communication patterns and children’s mental well-being. Journal of Family Communication, 7, 23-46.